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This chapter briefly describes many of the principles driving the present growth and development of low-temperature biological applications. An understanding of these principles is required to optimize design of practical apparatus for low-temperature biological processes. Although this field is growing in both breadth and sophistication, this chapter is restricted to processes that involve temperatures below which ice formation is normally encountered(i.e., 32°F [0°C]), and to an overview of the state of the art.

Preservation Applications
Research Applications
Clinical Applications
Refrigeration Hardware for Cryobiological Applications

ISBN: 978-1-936504-72-5 (for SI versions of chapters)
ISSN: 1930-7178 (for SI versions of chapters)

Citation: 2014 ASHRAE Handbook -- Refrigeration: Chapter 49, Biomedical Applications of Cryogenic Refrigeration (SI)