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AWS A4.4M:2001(R2016) establishes standard procedures for determination of moisture content of welding fluxes and welding electrode coverings. The test involves combustion of a sample in an oxygen carrier gas at elevated temperature. Any water evolved from the sample or formed by the combustion process is measured by means of either Karl Fischer titration or infrared detection. The key differences between these methods and traditional thermo gravimetric techniques are the inclusion of instrument calibration procedures, system verification checks and use of more accurate analytical techniques for water detection.