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Losses in dividing and combining T-junctions are important for flow balancing and for design of pipe and duct systems. As computer dimensioning and simulation increase, regression models for the energy losses in components become more important. In the USA the models of Idelchik are common because they are referenced in ASHRAE publications, while in Europe those of Gardel are often used. These two models are compared to each other and to experimental data published by the organization Eurovent (1996). The comparison reveals big differences in some cases and good agreement in other cases. The study is limited to round, sharp-edged T-junctions with constant diameter in the main duct or pipe.

This paper also published as DA-00-11-5, part of Symposium DA-00-11, Advances in Thermal and Fluid Flow Characteristics of HVAC and Refrigeration Processes

Units: SI