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Conditioning coal-burning powerplant flue gases with ammonia reduces the emission of nitrous oxide compounds. But the ammonia often combines with available sulfur and other compounds that attach to the fly ash. If the ammoniated fly ash is then used in concrete, the high-pH environment causes a release of ammonia and a strong, objectionable ammonia smell. This can make the fly ash unmarketable. What?s the solution? Fly ash beneficiation processes that can remove ammonia and also reduce the unburned carbon content.

Some of the processes are described in one of the 54 papers included in ACI SP-199, Seventh CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete. Other papers deal with effects of fly ash and admixture combinations on setting time, use of slag concrete to reduce corrosion of reinforcement, and the role of chemical and mineral admixtures in concrete made with recycled concrete as aggregate.