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This chapter describes forced recirculating systems. Successful water system design depends on awareness of the many complex interrelationships between various elements. In a practical sense, no component can be selected without considering its effect on the other elements. For example, design water temperature and flow rates are interrelated, as are the system layout and pump selection. The type and control of heat exchangers used affect the flow rate and pump selection, and the pump selection and distribution affect the controllability. The designer must thus work back and forth between tentative points and their effects until a satisfactory integrated design has been reached. Because of these relationships, rules of thumb usually do not lead to a satisfactory design.


Method of Design
Thermal Components
Hydraulic Components
Piping Circuits
Capacity Control of Load System
Low-Temperature Heating Systems
Chilled-Water Systems
Dual-Temperature Systems
Other Design Considerations
Other Design Procedures
Antifreeze Solutions

ISBN: 978-1-947192-53-9 (for SI versions of chapters)
ISSN: 1930-7705 (for SI versions of chapters)

Citation: 2020 ASHRAE Handbook¿¿¿HVAC Systems and Equipment