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"What goes around comes around" is particularly true for carbon dioxide (CO2) as a refrigerant. In the late 1800s, CO2 was used as a refrigerant in installations including chilling water and brines. It also was used for freezing and maintaining frozen products such as fish and meat. Manufacturers converted standard ammonia compressors to the high pressures required to condense CO2 (ranging from 800 to 1,000 psi [5516 to 6895 kPa]). Of course, this limits the CO2 system condensing temperature to 80°F or 85°F (27°C or 29°C), which is difficult to accomplish.


Citation: ASHRAE Journal, vol. 45 no. 12, December 2003