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The use of an underfloor plenum to deliver conditioned airdirectly into the occupied zone of a building is one of the keyfeatures that distinguish underfloor air distribution systemsfrom conventional ducted overhead systems. This paperdescribes the development, validation, and application of acomputational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting theairflow and thermal performance of underfloor air supplyplenums. To provide validation data for comparison with theCFD model, a series of experiments in a full-scale underfloorplenum test facility were carried out. The results of the experimentsand comparison with the model predictions aredescribed for the major variables, including plenum airflowpatterns and velocities, plenum air temperature distributions,and heat exchange between the exposed concrete slab, theunderside of the raised floor panels, and the supply air as itflows through the plenum. The validated CFD model was usedto perform additional simulations to investigate the impact ofplenum inlet design parameters (location and airflow directionand velocity) on the plenum heat gain and temperature distribution.Implications for the design and operation of underfloorair supply plenums are discussed.