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The District Heating Development Company (DHDC) was incorporated in 1979 as a private, nonprofit organization to plan and implement a hot water district heating system in St. Paul, Minnesota. Following preliminary and final feasibility studies, sufficient market acceptance, and successful financing, the project began construction in March 1983. Service to DHDC's first customers began on September 27, 1983. Twenty-four buildings are receiving medium temperature 190 – 250°F (88 – 1200°C) hot water energy. Approximately 50 more buildings will connect to the system in 1984 and 1985 as construction progresses.

Citation: Symposium, ASHRAE Transactions, 1984, vol. 90, pt. 2B, Kansas City, MO