Preface This is the fifth edition of CSA Z11, Portable ladders. This Standard supersedes the previous editions published in 2012, 1981, 1969, and 1967. This Standard covers design, performance, test, and marking requirements for portable ladders. Changes to this edition include the a) removal of the term "maximum working length"; reference is now only to "maximum extended length"; b) addition of provisions for tripod ladders, articulated ladders, articulated extendable ladders, and telescoping ladders; c) technical harmonization with new editions of ANSI/ASC A14.2 and ANSI/ASC A14.5; d) elimination of projected use criteria based on ladder Grade (Clause 4); e) clarification of requirements for step clear width and flare (Clause 6.2.3); f) updating of requirements for step spacing (Clause 6.2.10); g) establishment of new side-rail cantilever drop test (Clause 8.2.9); h) establishment of new foot slip tests (Clauses 8.2.10 and 8.3.10); i) establishment of new front and rear rail drop test (Clause 8.3.11); j) provisions for a number of new and updated safe use markings (Clause 9); and k) additional guidance on safe use of ladders (Clause 10). CSA Group gratefully acknowledges that the development of this Standard was made possible, in part, by the financial support of the Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation for Occupational Safety and Health. CSA Group gratefully acknowledges the technical support received from the American National Standards Committee on Safety in the Construction, Care, and Use of Ladders, administered by the American Ladder Institute, in the development of this Standard. With their permission, a number of the newly-introduced test procedures and related apparatus set-up figures were based on material appearing in the ANSI/ASC A14 series standards.
Scope 1.1 This Standard applies to common types of portable ladders and includes design and performance- related requirements and tests. 1.2 Ladders covered by this Standard are intended for use by only one person at a time under normal conditions of usage, with the exception of trestle ladders, which are designed for use by two persons at the same time. 1.3 This Standard does not specify details on the construction of portable ladders. The requirements listed in this Standard are intended to specify certain minimum characteristics of strength and stability deemed necessary for the safe use of portable ladders. 1.4 This Standard covers single-section ladders, multiple-section ladders, trestle ladders, step ladders, step stools, tri-pod ladders, combination ladders, platform ladders, articulated ladders, and telescoping ladders, but does not cover ladder accessories (e.g., ladder levellers, ladder stabilizers or stand-off devices, ladder jacks, or ladder straps or hooks) that can be installed on, or used in conjunction, with ladders. Note: Although ladder accessories themselves are not covered by this Standard, a ladder containing accessories can be certified if it meets the requirements of this Standard (see ANSI/ASC A14.8 for specific requirements for ladder accessories). 1.5 In addition, this Standard stipulates requirements for selection, care, and use of portable ladders. 1.6 The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only. 1.7 In this Standard, "shall" is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; "should" is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and "may" is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard. Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material. Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.