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When the BACnet protocol was first published in 1995, the European controls and building automation market was completely dominated by controls companies with proprietary communication systems. Although customers could select from several brands of equipment at the start of a project, they tended to be locked into their choice for many years. FND (the German government’s Firm Neutral (i.e., vendor-independent) Data communication protocol) and other publicly available protocols did little to alter the situation.


Citation: ASHRAE Journal, vol. 44, no. 10, October 2002