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1.1''These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen.

1.2''These test methods are used to determine the average grain size of specimens with a unimodal distribution of grain areas, diameters, or intercept lengths. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E1181. Measurement of individual, very coarse grains in a fine grained matrix is described in Test Methods E930.

1.3''These test methods deal only with determination of planar grain size, that is, characterization of the two-dimensional grain sections revealed by the sectioning plane. Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.

1.4''These test methods describe techniques performed manually using either a standard series of graded chart images for the comparison method or simple templates for the manual counting methods. Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E1382.

1.5''These test methods deal only with the recommended test methods and nothing in them should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness of purpose of the materials tested.

1.6''The measured values are stated in SI units, which are regarded as standard. Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate.

1.7''This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8''The paragraphs appear in the following order:

Section

Number

Scope

'''1

Referenced Documents

'''2

Terminology

'''3

Significance and Use

'''4

Generalities of Application

'''5

Sampling

'''6

Test Specimens

'''7

Calibration

'''8

Preparation of Photomicrographs

'''9

Comparison Procedure

10

Planimetric (Jeffries) Procedure

11

General Intercept Procedures

12

Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure

13

Circular Intercept Procedures

14

Hilliard Single-Circle Procedure

'''14.2

Abrams Three-Circle Procedure

'''14.3

Statistical Analysis

15

Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes

16

Specimens Containing Two or More Phases or Constituents

17

Report

18

Precision and Bias

19

Keywords

20

Annexes:

''

'''Basis of ASTM Grain Size Numbers

Annex A1

'''Equations for Conversions Among Various Grain Size Measurements

Annex A2

'''Austenite Grain Size, Ferritic and Austenitic Steels

Annex A3

'''Fracture Grain Size Method

Annex A4

'''Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

Annex A5

'''Application to Special Situations

Annex A6

Appendixes:

''

'''Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations

Appendix X1

'''Referenced Adjuncts

Appendix X2

1.9''This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

 

Document History

  1. ASTM E112-13(2021)

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    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

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  2. ASTM E112-13


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  3. ASTM E112-12


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  4. ASTM E112-10


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  5. ASTM E112-96(2004)e2


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  6. ASTM E112-96(2004)e1


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  7. ASTM E112-96(2004)


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  8. ASTM E112-96e3


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  9. ASTM E112-96e2


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  10. ASTM E112-96e1


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

    • Historical Version
  11. ASTM E112-88


    Standard Test Methods for Determining Grain Size

    • Historical Version