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In 1997, API conducted a survey designed to evaluate the effectiveness of diked-area liner systems and to document operational problems involved with their use. The survey data indicated that the effectiveness of liners in protecting the environment is limited because liner systems frequently fail. The data further showed that there are few releases from aboveground storage tanks that would be addressed by diked-area liners. Because there were few releases, the data do not directly demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of liner systems in containing releases; however, it was concluded that measures that prevent aboveground storage tank releases are more effective in protecting the environment and are more cost-effective in the long run.