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The use of geothermal resources can be subdivided into three generalcategories: high-temperature (>300°F [>150°C]) electric power production,intermediate- and low-temperature (<300°F [<150°C]) direct-use applications,and ground-source heat pump applications (generally<90°F [<32°C]). Thischapter covers only direct use (including wells, equipment, and applications)and ground-source heat pumps. Design aspects of the building heat pump loop maybe found in Chapter 9 of the 2016 ASHRAEHandbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment.GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMPSTerminologyGeneral InformationGround-Coupled Heat Pump Systems Using Water-Based HeatTransfer FluidsGround-Coupled Heat Pump Systems Using Refrigerant-BasedHeat Transfer Fluids (Direct Exchange)Open-Loop Groundwater Heat Pump System ComponentsOpen-Loop Groundwater Heat Pump System DesignSurface Water Heat PumpsDIRECT-USE GEOTHERMAL ENERGYResourcesFluidsPresent UseDesignCost FactorsMaterials and EquipmentResidential and Commercial Building ApplicationsIndustrial ApplicationsRenewabilityNo. of Pages: 51

Citation: 2019 ASHRAE Handbook¿¿¿HVAC Applications