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Residential building energy codes require building assemblies to meet or exceed a specific R-value. To calculate the R-value requires knowledge of the percentage framing in exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. The ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals and residential building codes present a wide range in recommended framing values: from 10% to 25%. One hundred and eighty wood-frame dwellings were audited during construction to assess the amount of framing. The dwellings were distributed in five regions of the United States (northeast, southeast, midwest, west, and high seismic regions) and for three dwelling types (single detached, attached, and multi-family). Representative framing factors were determined for walls, ceilings, and floors.

Units: I-P