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A technical and economic analysis of demand-side management (DSM) actions on electric storage water heaters (ESWH) must be based on a reliable consumption and electric load curve calculation. Water heater stocks and typical hot water needs to be taken into account are generally well defined at a certain stage of DSM studies. The remaining problem is to take into account real operating conditions to determine power demand and energy consumption. This study provides elements with which to answer the following questions: How are the intrinsic parameters of a water heater linked to global consumption or peak demand? How to compute field standby losses, which are generally far from laboratory test measurements? How much energy and peak demand can be transferred through night/day control? How does this influence overall energy consumption of ESWH?

Units: Dual 

KEYWORDS: year 1997, Energy storage, water heaters, water heating, load management, measuring, electricity consumption, energy consumption, laboratory testing, heat loss

Citation: ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.103, Part 2, Boston 1997